wpa2和wpa用什么软件可以破解呢?

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wpa2和wpa用什么软件可以破解呢?

问:wpa2和wpa用什么软件可以破解呢?

  • 答:下个穷举PIN码破解软件就可以破解了,破解时间可能有点长,基本还是有效的,但是软件已经过时了,只能破解比较老的路由器,新的路由器针对漏洞做了一些改进,一般破解不了!
  • 答:以前的加密方式是wep加密,可以用奶瓶等软件抓包破解,但自从加密方式改成wpa和wpa2,几乎无人能破解,如果你能破解,那可以好好写篇论文了,媲美王晓云的md5破解了,所以,楼主还是放弃吧。

问:如何把电子签名整到论文里wpa?

  • 答:首先用一张白纸签下你的名字,然后通过文件扫描将签名生成JPG文件或PNG文件,即可在论文中插入签名照。
    在Word文档中插入拍好的签名照片,裁剪至合适的大小并移动到合适的位置,然后双击图片进入图片编辑,在颜色那点击设置透明度。通过调整透明度和裁剪图片大小,得到合适的电子签名。

问:关于网络信息处理和信息安全应用的一篇论文?

想问问应该从哪些方面入手,比如开题报告怎么写,重点讲那几个方面

  • 答:热心相助
    开题报告参考模板
    XXXXXX学院
    毕业论文开题报告
    课题名称 手机无线联网安全技术及应用研究
    学 院 电子信息学院
    专 业 网络工程
    班 级 BX0907
    学 号 12
    姓 名 XXX
    指导教师 XXX
    定稿日期: 2013 年 01 月 18 日
    手机无线联网安全技术及应用研究
    摘要:从第一台计算机发明到现在短短的几十年内,计算机和网络使得人们的生活发生着巨大的改变。电脑上网方式发生了很大的改变,人们不在局限于通过网线接入网络,出现了各种无线网络。但随着手机技术的发展,人们开始使用手机来接入网络浏览网页,聊天,下载各种需要的事物等等。
    但是手机网络就如同计算机网络一样不是一个很成熟的,其中有着各种漏洞,黑客可以通过相关的漏洞来进行对手机用户的攻击。很多人通过手机下载各种java程序,而java程序中可能包含着木马病毒等等不利于手机用户的东西。
    本文重点进行手机上网安全,手机病毒的危害,黑客攻击手机的方法手段,以及对应的预防措施等等
    关键词:手机上网,网络安全,手机病毒,防范措施。
    1 文献综述
    随着手机技术的日趋成熟,接入互联网轻松获得大量的信息已成为未来手机发展的必然趋势。而且随着配备Java功能的i模式手机登场,手机接入互联网更为便捷,势必会因此增加手机感染病毒的机会。由于通过网络直接对WAP手机进行攻击比对GSM手机进行攻击更加简便易行,WAP手机已经成为电脑黑客攻击的重要对象。
    黑客对手机进行攻击,通常采用以下三种方式:一是攻击WAP服务器,使WAP手机无法接收正常信息;二是攻击和控制“网关”,向手机发送垃圾信息(严格地说,以上两种手机病毒还属于电脑病毒,不会破坏手机本身);三是直接攻击手机本身,使手机无法提供服务。新一代的WAP手机由于其功能的多元化,因此病毒带来的灾害也会更大。侵袭WAP手机的病毒可能会自动启动电话录音功能、自动拨打电话、删除手机上的档案内容,甚至会制造出金额庞大的电话账单。
    手机上网:WAP无线应用协议是一个开放式的标准协议,可以把网络上的信息传送到移动电话货其他无线通讯终端上。WAP是由多家通信业巨头统一制定的,它使用一种类似于HTML的标记式语言WML,并可通过WAP Gateway直接访问一般的网页。通过WAP,用户可以随时随地利用无线通讯终端来获取互联网上的即时信息或公司网站的资料,真正实现无线上网。CMWAP多用于WAP开头的网站为主。CMNET可以浏览WWW网站。手机上网(WAP)是移动互联网的一种体现形式。是传统电脑上网的延伸和补充。通过WAP,用户可以随时随地利用无线终端来获取互联网上的即时信息货公司网站的资料,真正实现无线上网。
    手机病毒:手机病毒是一种具有破坏性,传染性的手机程序。可以通过发送彩信、短信,浏览网站,下载铃声,蓝牙等方式传播,会导致用户手机关机、死机、向外发送垃圾邮件泄露个人信息、自动拨打电话、发短信彩信等进行恶意扣费,甚至会损毁芯片、SIM卡等硬件,导致手机用户无法正常使用手机。史上最早的手机病毒于2000年被发现,在当时手机公司Movistar大量收到名为“Timofonica”的骚扰短信,该病毒由西班牙电信公司 “Telefonica”的移动系统向系统内的手机用户发送垃圾短信。此病毒仅仅被称作为短信炸弹。真正意义上的手机病毒直到2004年6月才出现,为一种名为“Cabir”蠕虫病毒,通过诺基亚s60系列手机进行复制,然后不断寻找安装了蓝牙的手机。在此之后手机病毒正式开始泛滥。据统计2012年二季度手机病毒数量达到23413个,接近2011年度全年数量。
    2 选题背景及其意义
    随着手机技术的日趋成熟,以及手机的便于携带功能使得手机接入网络的频率越来越高了,然而手机网络和计算机网络有很多的相似点,对于网络方面的法律不是很完善所以如何处理手机联网安全变成了一个广大手机用户的一个重要的问题。
    智能手机(smartphone)与一般手机相比,它具有一般手机的通讯功能,还带有相应的操作系统(OS),可以通过下载安装应用软件来拓展手机的其他功能,如安装浏览器来浏览网页,收发邮件,查看股票、交通情况、天气情况,看电影,通过相应的软件来听音乐,玩游戏等,这类具有独立操作系统的手机被称之为智能手机。智能手机具有以下几个特点:1、具有接入无线互联网的能力, 2、具有PDA(Personal Digital Assistant),包括PIM(个人信息管理) 日程记事,任务安排,多媒体应用,浏览网页;3、具有开放性的操作系统,可以根据需求来安装需要的应用程序,使手机的功能等到极、大地拓展;4、具有强大的功能,极强的拓展能力,大量的第三方软件支持。
    据统计至2012/06,中国手机上网用户人数突破3亿,手机上网用户比例占全部使用互联网人数的10%。手机用户多用于QQ聊天,微博,微信,查收电子邮件,手机游戏等等,通过以上所诉的方式可以使各种病毒在手机之间传播,而现在随着电脑和手机的高速发展,手机病毒发展的速度也日益加快。
    由于3G的高速数据传播使得3G渐渐地取代了以前的2G以及2.5G。据调查WCDMA是世界上运用最广泛的,终端种类最多样的一种3G标准,已有538个WCMDA运营商于世界上246个国家和地区开通了WCDMA网络,3G商用市场份额超过80%,而WCDMA向下兼容的GSM网络已覆盖184个国家,遍布全球,WCDMA用户已超过6亿。因此研究手机联网安全
    随着Symbian系统渐渐地退出智能手机的舞台,现在智能手机使用的主要操作系统分为Android系统以及IOS系统。Android是一种基于Linux的自由及开放源代码的操作系统,主要适用于便携设备。据2012年11月数据显示Android系统在全球智能手机操作系统市场所占的份额为76%,在中国市场占有率为90%。IOS系统是由苹果公司开发的操作系统,同样适用于便携设备。IOS是一种闭源系统,但IOS系统又不是传统意义上的闭源系统,随着Android系统地不断进化,IOS系统想要保持客户的情况,必须有所发展以适应相应的变化,因此IOS系统出现了一种新的闭源方式,系统代码封闭,其他的可以与第三方软件商分享利益;苹果手上的代码不会开放,但它们也会随着时间地变化而出现变化。于2011年11月数据显示,IOS占据全球智能手机系统市场份额的30%,在美国的市场占有率为43%。随着通信技术地进步,智能手机与第三方软件的开发和普及等在一定的程度上促使了手机病毒的制造和传播,据统计在Andriod平台上的病毒已经占到所有手机病毒的84%,研究手机安全的主要在于Andriod平台。但是2012年12月13日全球知名信息安全专家、亚洲网络信息安全组织SyScan创始人Thomas Lim在360SyScan国际安全会议上透露:“随着全球智能手机普及化的迅猛发展,苹果的IOS系统已成为黑客们攻击的新热点。”目前黑客正在试图通过程式组来攻击IOS,以一连串的方式对系统中的多个漏洞进行攻击。通过攻击,黑客完全控制掌握用户的IOS系统,录像、录音,通话等信息将会被攻击者窃取。由于这种形式的攻击复杂程度高,涉及底层系统的各个层面技术较为繁琐,现在还没有安全的预防方式。但是这是因为技术的复杂程度,所以目前对于IOS系统的攻击还是相对较少。故而目前研究手机病毒的焦点在于开放的Andriod平台。现在无线互联网领域的焦点是智能手机的信息安全,在移动安全领域出现的新威胁展现出了“作恶手法创新、危害加剧”的态势。根据目前智能手机市场上的占有量,Andriod系统的手机是信息安全、手机木马的重灾区,苹果IOS系统和塞班系统紧随其后。现在安全趋势主要体现在三个方面:首先,黑客借助鱼恶意软件来进行垃圾、欺诈短信的传播;其次,流氓推广木马趋泛滥,危害方式愈发隐蔽;第三,感染的途径方式在日益增多,二维码、微博正成为智能手机用户“中招”的新途径。
    权限管理;一般指根据系统设置的安全规则或者安全策略,用户可以访问而且只能访问自己被授权的资源,不多不少。在安装应用程序的时候,手机用户需要注意应用程序索要的权限,有些病毒是在安装的时候通过获得更高地权限来进行各种不法的行为。
    手机“肉鸡”如同电脑“肉鸡”一样也给手机用户带来极大的危害,许多手机在出厂前便被植入各种木马病毒,然后在用户使用手机的时候来进行各种操作,手机“肉鸡”的危害远大于电脑“肉鸡”,手机病毒可以给植入者带去相当可观的收入来源,曾报道过服务供应商可以在一个月内收入数亿的重款,因此导致相关的手机病毒木马更加频繁地出现在各种手机平台。
    除此外在手机中的各种乱收费业务中,不少的是在于手机购买时的问题,由很多山寨的手机在出厂的时候内置各种系统,很多用户在不知不觉中被强制性地扣掉了不少的费用。有的却是在送去维修的时候被不甚感染了病毒木马等。
    3 研究内容
    3.1手机联网所受到的威胁
    1)应用程序的漏洞 2)病毒 3)恶意或间谍软件 4)网络监听
    5)手机出厂时内置的系统
    3.2无线网络的完全
    无线网络是利用无线电技术取代传统网线进行连入互联网。通过现在流行的手机无线联网方式(WIFI,3G等)来进行无线网络安全分析和研究。
    无线网络安全标准
    A.WEP(Wired Equivalent Privacy)
    B. WPA(WI-FI Protected Access)
    C. WAPI(WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure)
    3.3 网络安全的攻防方式
    通过现有的各种手机上网的威胁进行研究,了解现阶段的攻防方式
    3.4网络边界安全
    网络边界是内部网络和公共网络的分界线,网络边界路由器是所有流量出入内部网络的关键设备。网络边界安全是指在网络边界上采用的安全措施和手段,他通常包括防火墙,VPN设备等部件。
    3.5网络终端安全
    终端的安全是网络安全的重要组成部分,只有首先保证终端上没有病毒或木马的存在,才能最大可能地保证网络中数据的安全。
    4 工作特色及其难点,拟采取的解决措施
    了解手机用户使用手机时遇到的各种病毒有些困难。拟通过网络投票方式来查看一下有多少用户遇到过类似恶意扣费,自动拨打电话等问题,以及问题的种类。通过网络投票来了解用户使用的手机类型以及手机系统。
    手机安全方面目前还没有一个完整的体系,使得应对手机安全有着不小的难度。由于安卓的开放源代码使得手机病毒可以迅速发展,当出现新的病毒时,不能够及时的了解和预防。
    通过查找文献资料来研究手机病毒和黑客攻击手机的各种方式,对此进行如何使用手机来进行防御。
    5 论文工作量及预期进度
    2012/11/15-2013/01/ : 确定选题、资料准备、翻译有关外文资料及阅读技术文献、撰写开题报告。
    2013/01/ -2013/02/30: 调研分析、具体研究及新技术应用
    2013/03/01-2013/05/01: 撰写毕业设计报告
    2013/05/26-2013/06/05: 毕业设计答辩
    6 预期成果及其可能的创新点
    预计成果:通过研究黑客入侵手机的方式以及手机病毒的种类来了解和处理手机联网安全问题。通过手机病毒与计算机病毒的对比,来了解和应用手机联网安全技术,掌握有关手机联网安全的一些实际应用。通过文献资料来研究骇客攻击手机的方式,手机病毒的传播方式,手机权限相对应的功能,以及手机病毒的预防措施等。
    可能的创新点;通过现在主流的各种上网方式(wifi,3G等),不同手机操作系统来研究手机的安全问题。
    参考文献
    [1] 贾铁军主编. 网络安全实用技术清华大学出版社.2011
    [2] 贾铁军主编. 网络安全管理及实用技术. 机械工业出版社.2010
    [3] 杨哲、 Zerone无线安全团队.无线网络黑客攻防.中国铁道出版社.2011
    [4] 中国密码学会.无线网络安全.电子工业出版社,2011
    [5] 贾铁军.网络安全技术及应用(第2版).机械工业出版社,2014.
    [6] 王继刚.手机病毒大曝光.西安交通大学出版社,2009.
    [7] 诸葛建伟.网络攻防技术与实践. 清华大学出版社,2011
    [8] 米歇尔(Mitchell T.M.). 大数据技术丛书:机器学习. 机械工业出版社,2008
    [9] 王建锋.计算机病毒分析与防治大全(第3版).电子工业出版社,2011
    [10]金光,江先亮. 无线网络技术教程:原理、应用与仿真实验.清华大学出版社,2011
    [11]斯托林斯,无线通信与网络.清华大学出版社,2005
    [12]雅各布森(Douglas Jacobson),网络安全基础:网络攻防、协议与安全.电子工业出版社,2011
    [13]海吉(Yusuf Bhaiji).网络安全技术与解决方案(修订版).人民邮电出版社,2010
    [14]麦克卢尔(Stuart McClure) , 斯卡姆布智(Joel Scambray), 库尔茨(George Kurtz).黑客大曝光:网络安全机密与解决方案(第6版).清华大学出版社,2010
    [15]石志国 , 薛为民, 尹浩. 计算机网络安全教程(第2版).清华大学出版社,2011
    [16]杨哲.无线网络安全攻防实战进阶.电子工业出版社,2011
    指导教师意见
    随着手机技术的日趋成熟,接入互联网轻松获得大量的信息已成为未来手机发展的必然趋势。而且随着配备Java功能的i模式手机登场,手机接入互联网更为便捷,势必会因此增加手机感染病毒的机会。由于通过网络直接对WAP手机进行攻击比对GSM手机进行攻击更加简便易行,WAP手机已经成为电脑黑客攻击的重要对象。
    黑客对手机进行攻击,通常采用以下三种方式:一是攻击WAP服务器,使WAP手机无法接收正常信息;二是攻击和控制“网关”,向手机发送垃圾信息(严格地说,以上两种手机病毒还属于电脑病毒,不会破坏手机本身);三是直接攻击手机本身,使手机无法提供服务。新一代的WAP手机由于其功能的多元化,因此病毒带来的灾害也会更大。侵袭WAP手机的病毒可能会自动启动电话录音功能、自动拨打电话、删除手机上的档案内容,甚至会制造出金额庞大的电话账单。
    该生能够按要求针对论文所涉及课题目的和意义进行分析,文献综述叙述较完整,研究内容阐述较合理,对实现设计的技术路线有初步的了解,对后期论文工作的进度安排较适当。
    在以后的工作中,要按开题的要求进行论文工作,每周应按时与指导老师针对论文撰写及程序编写、调试过程中遇到的问题进行交流和沟通。
    因此,同意开题。
    指导教师签名:
    2013年2月28日
    评议小组意见
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    3、论文的工作量:□偏大;□适当;□偏小。
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    □好;□较好;□一般;□较差。
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    (在相应的方块内作记号“√”)
    二级学院所确定评议小组名单(3-5人)
    组长: 、
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问:毕业论文题目:无线办公室网络设计?

马上毕业要求写论文,我也没写过,有写过的朋友给提供一份吗?最好是完整的论文包括格式谢谢了!!!

  • 答:利用无线网络技术组建小型无线办公网络
    随着网络技术的发展,笔记本电脑的
    普及,人们对移动办公的要求越来越高。
    传统的有线局域网要受到布线的限制,因
    此高效快捷、组网灵活的无线局域网应运
    而生。现在很多高校和大型企业已经实现
    了无线局域网。 
    1无线局域网的优点
    无线局域网WLAN(wireless local area
    network)是计算机网络与无线通信技术相
    结合的产物。它以无线多址信道作为传输
    媒介,利用电磁波完成数据交互,实现传统
    有线局域网的功能。无线局域网具有以下
    特点:
    1.1安装便捷
    无线局域网免去了大量的布线工作,
    只需要安装一个或多个无线访问点(access
    point,AP)就可覆盖整个建筑的局域网络,
    而且便于管理、维护。
    1.2高移动性
    在无线局域网中,各节点可随意移动,
    不受地理位置的限制。目前,AP可覆盖
    10~100 m。在无线信号覆盖的范围内,均
    可以接入网络,而且WLAN能够在不同运
    营商、不同国家的网络间漫游。
    1.3易扩展性
    无线局域网有多种配置方式,每个AP
    可支持100多个用户的接入,只需在现有无
    线局域网基础上增加AP,就可以将几个用
    户的小型网络扩展为几千用户的大型网
    络。
    2无线局域网的技术分析
    无线局域网的基础还是传统的有线局
    域网,是有线局域网的扩展和替换。是在
    有线局域网的基础上通过无线HUB、无线
    访问节点(AP)、无线网桥、无线网卡等
    设备使无线通信得以实现。与有线网络一
    样,无线局域网同样也需要传送介质。只
    是无线局域网采用的传输媒体不是双绞线
    或者光纤,而是红外线(IR)或者无线电波
    (RF),以后者使用居多。
    3无线局域网的主要协议标准
    无线接入技术区别于有线接入的特点
    之一是标准不统一,不同的标准有不同的
    应用。目前比较流行的有802.11标准、新
    贵蓝牙(Bluetooth)标准以及HomeRF(家
    庭网络)标准。
    3.1 802.11协议简介
    IEEE在1997年为无线局域网制定─
    ─IEEE 802.11协议标准。总数据传输速
    率设计为2Mbit/s,两个设备之间的通信可
    以设备到设备的方式进行,也可以在基站
    或者访问点的协调下进行。
    3.1.1 IEEE 802.11b
    是无线局域网的一个标准。其载波的
    频率为2.4GHz,可提供1、2、5.5及
    11Mbit/s的多重传送速度。IEEE 802.11b
    是所有无线局域网标准中最著名,也是普
    及率最广的标准。它有时也被错误地标为
    Wi-Fi。实际上Wi-Fi是无线局域网联盟
    (WLANA)的一个商标,该商标仅保障使
    用该商标的商品互相之间可以合作,与标
    准本身实际上没有关系。
     3.1.2 IEEE 802.11a
    是802.11原始标准的一个修订标准,
    于1999年获得批准。802.11a标准采用了
    与原始标准相同的核心协议,工作频率为
    5GHz,最大原始数据传输率为54Mbit/s。
    3.1.3 IEE 802.11g
    其载波的频率为2.4GHz,原始传送速
    度为54Mbit/s,净传输速度约为24.7Mbit/
    s。802.11g的设备向下与802.11b兼容。
    现在很多无线路由器厂商已经应市场
    需要而在IEEE 802.11g的标准上另行开
    发新标准,并将理论传输速度提升至
    108Mbit/s或125Mbit/s。
    3.2蓝牙
    蓝牙(IEEE 802.15)是一项新标准,
    “蓝牙”是一种极其先进的大容量近距离
    无线数字通信的技术标准,其目标是实现
    最高数据传输速度1Mbit/s(有效传输速
    率为721kbit/s)、最大传输距离为10cm~
    10m,通过增加发射功率可达到100m。蓝
    牙比802.11更具移动性,比如,802.11限
    制在办公室和校园内,而蓝牙却能把一个
    设备连接到LAN(局域网)和WAN(广
    域网),甚至支持全球漫游。此外,蓝牙成
    本低、体积小,可用于更多的设备。“蓝牙”
    最大的优势还在于,在更新网络骨干时,如
    果搭配“蓝牙”架构进行,使用整体网路的
    成本肯定比铺设线缆低。
    4无线局域网的安全性
    无线局域网采用公共的电磁波作为载
    体,容易受到非法用户入侵和数据窃听。
    无线局域网必须考虑的安全因素有三个:
    信息保密、身份验证和访问控制。为了保
    障无线局域网的安全,要使用适当的技术,
    主要有:物理地址(MAC)过滤、服务集标
    识符(SSID)匹配、有线等效保密(WEP)、有
    线等效保密(WEP)、虚拟专用网络(VPN)、
    Wi-Fi保护访问(WPA)。要针对自己网络
    的特点和要求,来选择相应的技术。
    5小型无线办公网络组网方案
    5.1 Wi-Fi与蓝牙的选择
    根据目前的无线技术状况,目前主要
    是通过蓝牙及802.11b/a/g二种无线技术
    组建无线办公网络。现比较如下:
    (1)蓝牙技术的数据传输速率为1Mbit/
    s,通信距离为10m左右;而802.11b/a/g的
    数据传输速率达到了11Mbit/s,并且有效
    距离长达100m,更具有“移动办公”的特
    点,可以满足用户运行大量占用带宽的网
    络操作,所以802.11b/a/g比较适合用在办
    公室构建无线网络(特别是笔记本电脑)。
    (2)从成本来看,802.11b/a/g比较廉
    价,目前很多笔记本一般都为迅弛平台,本
    身集成了802.11b/a/g无线网卡,用户只要
    购买一台无线局域网接入器(无线AP)即
    可组建无线网络。蓝牙则要根据网络的概
    念提供点对点和点对多点的无线连接。在
    任意一个有效通信范围内,所有设备的地
    位都是平等的。当然,从另一个角度来看,
    蓝牙更适合家庭组建无线局域网。
    5.2 Wi-Fi无线网络组网方案
    在组建Wi-Fi无线网络前,需要准备无
    线网卡和无线AP,如果电脑本身不具备无
    线网卡,那么可以购买相同协议的PCMICA、
    USB等接口的802.11b无线网卡。另一个就
    是无线AP的选择了,建议这类用户选择小
    型办公使用的USB无线AP。根据资金实力
    选择功能和性能较强一点的,这关系到办公
    电脑上网的稳定性和安全性。
    在实际组建当中,比如有5台电脑,其
    中1台放在单独一间房间里,另外4台在办
    公的大房间里,并且使用ADSL拨号的电
    话也在1号机器上。因此,将无线AP安装
    到1号机器上,其它机器通过无线网关连
    接到1号机器的AP上组成无线网络
    5.3无线网络的安装
    设备准备好后,就需要将设备安装并
    配置。
    首先是无线网卡的安装,不管是使用笔记
    本内置无线网卡,还是通过扩展安装无线网
    卡,首先需要安装好无线网卡的驱动程序。
    接下来进行无线网络的安装,要求计
    算机的操作系统至少为Windows XP SP2,
    它对无线的支持也有很大程度的提高。可
    直接进入“控制面板”的“无线网络安装
    向导”进行配置。此外,根据你所选用的设
    备为每台电脑的无线网卡设置一个IP地
    址、进行安全设置。
    6结语
    无线局域网把网络和移动应用有机地
    结合在一起,克服了有线局域网的不足,随
    着各种技术、标准的完善,无线局域网将
    越来越成熟,为人们提供一个高速、灵活
    的多媒体网络。

问:论文题目The Main Coverage of Chinas Ocean Marine Insuerance?

The Main Coverage of Chinas Ocean Marine Insuerance试论我国海运货物保险的基本险别和承保范围 ,我不知道从哪几方面写好,最好能再推荐一些资料.资料不好找

  • 答:下面的是与海运有关的保险:
    1.Risks & Coverage险别
    (1)free from particular average (F.P.A.)平安险
    (2)with particular average (W.A.)水渍险(基本险)
    (3)all risk 一切险(综合险)
    (4)total loss only (T.L.O.) 全损险
    (5)war risk 战争险
    (6)cargo(extended cover)clauses货物(扩展)条款
    (7)additional risk 附加险
    (8)from warehouse to warehouse clauses仓至仓条款
    (9)theft,pilferage and nondelivery (T.P.N.D.)盗窃提货不着险
    (10)rain fresh water damage 淡水雨淋险
    (11)risk of shortage 短量险
    (12)risk of contamination 沾污险
    (13)risk of leakage 渗漏险
    (14)risk of clashing & breakage碰损破碎险
    (15)risk of odour 串味险
    (16)damage caused by sweating and/or heating 受潮受热险
    (17)hook damage 钩损险
    (18)loss and/or damage caused by breakage of packing包装破裂险
    (19)risk of rusting 锈损险
    (20)risk of mould 发霉险
    (21)strike, riots and civel commotion (S.R.C.C.) 罢工、暴动、民变险
    (22)risk of spontaneous combustion 自燃险
    (23)deterioration risk 腐烂变质险
    (24)inherent vice risk 内在缺陷险
    (25)risk of natural loss or normal loss途耗或自然损耗险
    (26)special additional risk 特别附加险
    (27)failure to delivery 交货不到险
    (28)import duty 进口关税险
    (29)on deck 仓面险
    (30)rejection 拒收险
    (31)aflatoxin 黄曲霉素险
    (32)fire risk extension clause-for storage of cargo at destination Hongkong, including Kowloon, or Macao 出口货物到香港(包括九龙在内)或澳门存仓火险责任扩展条款
    (33)survey in customs risk 海关检验险
    (34)survey at jetty risk 码头检验险
    这篇文的第三段应该对您有帮助:
    Ocean Marine Insurance
    Insurance is a contract whereby one party, inconsideration of a premium paid, undertakes to indemnify the other party against loss from certain perils or risks to which the subject matter insured may be exposed to. It is an extensive subject and ocean marine insurance is only a small part of private insurance.
    Ocean marine insurance covers ships and their cargoes, both on the high seas and on inland waterways.
    1. NEED FOR INSURANCE
    Exporters and importers face all the time uncertainties of loss of their goods. Insurance is used to protect their financial interests against such risks and actual losses.Trade and insurance can and do exist independently, but in proper context, insurance is an indispensable adjunct. Without adequate insurance and protection of the interests of those with goods in transit, international trade would be negatively affected.
    2. COVERAGE OF OCEAN MARINE INSURANCE
    By purchasing insurance, the assured protects his financial interests against three things: the risk of loss, the actual loss and the expenses incurred to avoid or reduce loss.
    1)Risks
    Two types of risks are covered by ocean marine insurance. The first type is the perils of the sea that include both natural calamities and fortuitous accidents. Natural calamities refer to earthquake, heavy weather such as hurricane and thunderstorm, etc. These events should be exceptional to some extent and the ordinary action of the wind and waves are not considered natural calamities. Fortuitous accidents include fire, smoking, stranding, sinking, collision, etc. However, fire caused by inherent vice or nature of the cargo is excluded.
    All the perils must occur at sea and must be because of sea, otherwise the insurance will not cover them.A vessel intentionally sunk by its owner, for example, is not an accident because of sea and therefore will not be covered by ocean marine insurance. Similarly, natural deterioration and wear and tear are not perils of sea either.
    The second type of risks covered is extraneous risks. These risks include ordinary risks such as theft, pilferage, rain damage, shortage, breakage, etc and special risks such as strike, war, failure to deliver, etc.
    2) Losses
    Ocean marine insurance covers two types of losses, partial loss and total loss.
    Partial loss means the total loss of part of the insured cargo (eg, the loss of one case out of a shipment of ten) or the damage to all or part of the insured cargo.
    Total loss can be classified into actual total loss or constructive total loss. Actual total loss means the non-existence of the insured cargo in value. Constructive total loss, however, means the subject matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable or because it would not be preserved from actual total loss without tan expenditure greater than its recovered value. In other words, it is unlikely to recover the subject matter or the cost of recovery will exceed the value of the subject matter.
    3) Expenses
    Ocean marine insurance also covers some expenses incurred in reducing the loss of the subject matter insured either by the assured himself or a party other than the insurer and/or the assured. This encourages efforts to save the subject matter insured.
    3. MAIN CATEGORIES OF GENERAL CARGO INSURANCE
    1) Free from Particular Average(FPA) of China Insurance Clauses (CIC, effective January 1, 1981)
    Before going to FPA, average terms need to be explained. The word average has a special meaning in cargo insurance. It means partial loss or non-total loss to a ship or cargo, and partial loss in turn means 1) total loss of part of the insured cargo or 2) damage to all or part of the insured cargo.
    Particular average means a loss that is borne solely by the owner of the lost property (ship or cargo) and general average means a sacrifice made for the common safety of both the cargo and the ship. Partial damage of cargo by sea water is, for instance, a particular average, while partial damage of cargo by water that has been used to put out a fire is a general average since the damage has been made in order to save both the ship and the cargo on board the ship of all the cargo owners. (Of course, the damage caused by the fire is still a particular average).
    Particular average is recoverable from the insurance underwriter, if it has been covered; but general average is spread among the interests affected and all including owners whose property does not sustain a loss must make proportionate contributions, which are then recovered from the insurance underwriter.
    A general average must be a partial, deliberate and reasonable sacrifice of the ship, freight, or goods, undertaken for the common safety of the adventure, in time of peril and/or extraordinary expenditure with the like object such as the charges for towing a stranded ship.
    Free from Particular Average then means no partial loss or damage is recoverable. It provides coverage only for total loss of cargo together with ship or aircraft and general average.
    FPA is the minimum coverage and offers limited protection. However, there are two exceptions in which partial loss or damage is recoverable. First, if the lost object is a separate package in a shipment such as one case out of a ten-case shipment, partial loss or damage is recoverable. And if the vessel or craft is stranded, Sunk or burnt, partial loss or damage is also recoverable. Therefore FPA actually covers part of partial loss.
    China Insurance Clauses are very similar to Institute Cargo Clauses (ICC, effective January 1, 1982) made by the Institute of London Underwriters and widely used around the world. ICC (C), for example, has the same coverage as CIC FPA except for damage of package during loading and/or unloading.
    2) With Average/With Particular Average (WA/WPA) of CIC
    WA provides cover against all loss or damage due to marine perils or perils of the sea including partial loss or damage throughout the duration of the policy. This coverage provides protection against damage from sea water caused by "heavy weather".
    ICC (B) has the same coverage plus damage of package during loading and/or unloading.
    ICC (B) and (C) provide cover against specified risks only.
    3) All Risks (AR) of CIC
    Besides the risks covered by FPA and WA, All Risks also provides cover against some extraneous risks of loss or damage (eg, theft, pilferage and non-delivery, fresh water rain damage, risk of shortage, risk of intermixture and contamination, leakage risk, clashing and breakage risk, hook damage, loss and/or damage by breakage of packing, rusting risk). However, risks of war, strike and loss or damage or expense proximately caused by delay or inherent vice or nature of the subject matter insured are not covered.
    ICC (A) provides cover against all risks that are not specifically excluded and is similar to AR of CIC.
    4) Special additional coverage
    Besides the above categories of coverage, both CIC and ICC have some additional coverage’s. For example, CIC has coverage against failure to deliver risk, import duty risk, on deck risk, war risks, and strikes and so on. These additional coverage’s must be taken out together with FPA, WA or AR. ICC also provides coverage against war risks, strike and other risks, but war risks and strikes can be taken out independently.
    5) Exclusions of insurance policy
    Insurance policies have excluded the coverage against some risks. These exclusions are the loss or damage by risks such as inherent vice or deterioration, insufficient or unsuitable packing, delay and loss of market, etc.
    4. CARGO INSURANCE CLAIMS
    1) Procedures
    Cargo insurance claim includes a few steps as listed below.
    The assured should not give clean receipts when goods are in dubious condition.
    The assured should give immediate notice to the nearest branch or agency in the event of damage giving rise to a claim. This notice means that a claim has been filed. A delay in giving the notice, on the other hand, might result in the underwriter's refusal to process the claim.
    Insurance company will appoint a suitable surveyor to inspect the goods and report on the nature and extent of the damage, usually a report or certificate of loss is issued to the assured who pays a fee for it.
    The assured should send claim paper to the insurance company with the certificate. The inspection fee is refunded if the loss is recoverable.
    It is of vital importance that the assured must be able to prove a loss by a peril against which he was insured.
    2) Documents required
    The following documents are usually required in processing a claim for compensation.
    Original insurance certificate or policy
    Original B/L, AW (3 or other contract of carriage)
    Export invoice
    Survey report or other documentary evidence detailing the loss or damage
    Any exchange of correspondence with carriers and other parties regarding their liability for the loss or damage
    Any landing account or weight notes at final destination

问:求关于通信方面的 英文论文?

关于通信方面的英文的论文,最好是全篇文章发出来,一定要有摘要哦~~~~~谢谢,非常感谢~~~ 我想要的论文,一定要有摘要,可以只发摘要给我,谢谢~~

  • 答:1
    Wireless technology was little more than just a distant idea for the majority of ordinary consumers ten years ago. However, it has exploded over recent years with the use of 3G phones and wireless home computing increasingly commonplace.
    It would be foolish to suggest that wireless communication has reached its peak. Whilst mobile phones and home computing will continue to be the major focus in the quest for ever increasing sophistication within the technology, new applications are emerging daily.
    One company, Securecom Technologies, based in Ireland, have been at the forefront of harnessing wireless technologies in the area of personal safety. They already have a number of products in the marketplace designed to enable users to activate an alarm signal to a remote emergency centre wirelessly. Their Benefon range of applications are used by vulnerable elderly people, lone workers and VIPs to increase their sense of security and ability to effortlessly get in touch with help at the touch of the button.
    They are now in the process of developing PERUSE1, which stands for 'Personal Safety System Utilising Satellite combined with Emerging Technologies'. The Peruse project will develop a Wireless Personal Alarm (WPA) solution which will be carried by or worn on a person and will allow the user to summon help at the touch of a button. When the alarm has been activated, the WPA will transmit a low power signal to a satellite communications headset which will forward a message to an authorised number. This will include the identity of the person in distress, as well as their current location. However, the ingenuity of the technology goes further as it will also have the potential to transmit the user's current state of health and local environmental parameters.
    It is envisaged that the recipient of the users SOS signal will be a fully equipped Emergency Monitoring Centre to whom the user will have previously given full instructions as to the steps they would wish to have the Centre take on their behalf in the event of an emergency.
    There are two core components that are in the development phase. The wireless personal alarm (WPA) and a 'dongle' which provides the handset for satellite communication use which will have a low power wireless link to the WPA.
    The important issues here are that the two components will need to take into account size, cost, accuracy of location and battery autonomy. The main benefits will be that the device will be able to be worn or carried on a person discreetly. This makes it ideal for professions such as personal security, where the ability to communicate a message quickly and without fuss can often be of paramount importance. It will herald a new era in satellite communication. No longer will the user have to tap a keypad to enter a number nor will they have to move the handset for optimal signal strength prior to sending an emergence message. This technology will be invaluable to professions such as mountain rescue and will also be a tremendous benefit to those who enjoy hiking and climbing in the course of their leisure pursuits where conventional mobile phone technology can often be rendered useless.
    There are currently no known competitors for this potentially life saving technology for which Securecom has filed for both Irish and European Patent Applications. Prototypes have already been manufactured and pilot programmes and laboratory tests are well under way.
    UWB (Ultra Wide Band)2 is another example of emerging wireless technology. Alongside traditional wireless uses, UWB can also detect images through solid objects, such as people on the opposite side of a wall. This has led to an equal number of supporters and opponents.
    Although UWB can be used for consumer applications in a similar fashion to Bluetooth technology such as cable elimination between a PC and its peripheral equipment, the more interesting applications focus on its 'radar 'like imagery. These applications could be used to find people trapped in a burning building, locating hostages and captors behind a thick wall and finding objects such as those that might be buried in the ground. Heightened security at airports and other public buildings can use UWB technology to detect weapons on people and bombs in luggage and packages. In this age of heightened security, post 9/11, the benefits of this emerging technology should not be understated.
    A few companies have started to develop UWB products, including XtremeSpectrum, Time Domain and Aether Wire. XtremeSpectrum is developing products to enable the sending and receiving of multiple streams of digital audio and video for both battery powered and other consumer devices such as digital cameras, DVDs, DVRs, camcorders, MP3 players and set top boxes. Time Domain has developed a UWB chip set targeting three core technologies: wireless communication, precision location and tracking, and high definition portable radar whilst Aether Wire is working on miniature, distributed-position location and low data-rate communication devices. One of its goals is to develop coin sized devices that are capable of localisation to centimetre accuracy over kilometre distances.
    However, privacy violation is one of the major concerns of the technology's opponents. Any technology that can 'see' through solid objects can be used for illegal purposes as well as legitimate ones. In theory, a UWB-enabled system could 'look through' the walls of a house to locate valuable objects and could detect when the occupants are not at home. Supporters, however, could rightly point out that this is a dilemma shared by many technologies that are used to enhance public safety - the juggling act between increased security versus decreased personal freedom. It could be argued that baggage searches at airports via x-ray and metal detection are common examples of us giving up privacy for better security, a price most people are willing to pay.
    No other area is more at the forefront of the emergence of innovation in wireless technology than space exploration. Future missions to nearby planets like Mars will require space communication technologies that can provide an interplanetary satellite and navigation infrastructure via space systems that are far more compact and efficient than seen ever before. A longer term commitment will be necessary to resolve the challenges of efficient planetary communication due to the increase in distances involved as space exploration ventures further out into the solar system. To support planetary exploration, techniques developed for Earth-bound usage will be transferred to other planets as well. Exploration of Mars, for example, will require a high accuracy positioning capability such as a 'Martian GPS' as an aid to exploratory roving vehicles.
    This very day, the 'Mars Spirit' space rover continues to send data back to Earth, almost 18 months after it touched down on the red planet, surviving more than 4 times its expected mission length. One day it is highly likely that we may see astronauts walking on Mars carting around wi-fi enabled PCs. In a remote Arizona meteor crater, NASA has already begun testing a mobile wi-fi system that could enable those on a Mars mission to easily deploy wireless data connectivity at a transmission rate of just more than a megabit per second over a 2 square mile area, and then change that coverage area at will through the use of mobile access points, making it entirely feasible to explore different terrain on any given day.
    Tropos Networks3 developed the technology which NASA has adopted whereby the astronauts could have inter-connectivity via a three node mesh network. They would first establish a base communications station near their spacecraft and then set up an Ethernet connection between that base and a main access point. Then each node in the network would pick up its wireless connectivity from the access point.
    Testing is still in its infancy and there is some way to go before astronauts would be strutting their stuff on Mars and communicating wirelessly with one and other and with mission control in this way.
    However, the Mars Spirit space rover is still sending back images and data from the red planet today, relying heavily on wireless technology to do so. It may appear that these vehicles have been designed solely for the purpose of space exploration but closer scrutiny reveals applications that could also be modified and used on Earth. Unlike, say, a car manufacturing robot which knows where and when the engine or body appears on the assembly line, the Mars rovers are working in an unstructured and unknown environment. As a result, the rovers have had to learn about their new home through their own sensors, including a set of nine cameras on each rover. The rovers have two navigation cameras for a 3D view of their surroundings, two hazard avoidance cameras for a 3D view of nearby terrain and panoramic cameras to capture the images of the planet's surface. However, the rovers cannot just look around them, process the images and know where to go. Neither can the mission controllers on Earth grab a joystick and start steering the rovers whilst watching images being beamed back from thousands of miles away. A key reason is processing power. The central processor in each rover has a top speed of 20 MHz. Instead, during the Martian night, while a rover is 'asleep', a team on Earth with much more powerful computers programs its activities for the day ahead, and then sends basic instructions on where to go and how to get there. Along with taking pictures, each rover is examining the planet with several instruments on a robotic arm. The arms have 'shoulder', 'elbow' and 'wrist' joints for manoeuvrability and are equipped with four sensors: a microscopic camera for close up pictures of rocks, an alpha particle x ray spectrometer for determining the mineral content of rocks, another spectrometer for detecting iron and a rock abrasion tool for cutting through the layer of oxidation that forms on the surfaces of Martian rocks. As with the movement of the rovers, the arms are controlled mostly via prepared commands from mission control.
    Some observers have noted that some of these applications may prove useful here on Earth. For example, a robotic arm that doesn't require real time human control might be good for disabled people who use wheelchairs and can't control a joystick with their hands. Using its own sensors, it could reach out and get things for the person in the wheelchair, for example.
    In addition, a robot that can deal with new and unknown environments might save manufacturers money. In current factories with 'robotic' workers, when the company shifts to making a new product, the whole factory floor has to be reconfigured and the robots reprogrammed to deal with the new arrangement. A robot that could use feedback from sensors to figure out where things are could adapt to changes by itself, saving the company the time and effort of building a new structured environment and reprogramming the robots.
    With all the emerging technologies around and, inevitably, with more to come, the inevitable hurdle will be one of convergence and integration as the IT industry seeks to develop the tools that will be most sought after. Inevitably, there will be winners and losers.
    However, there is no doubt that the wireless phenomenon is reshaping enterprise connectivity worldwide and is definitely here to stay. Business needs information mobility for better customer interaction. Employees will be even more equipped to perform their job functions from their workplace of choice and, though this sounds like utopia, a societal change from office based to 'wherever they feel like being' based might conjure up an horrific vision of the future for company leaders who have enjoyed the traditions of having all their employees working from under the same roof.
    Another major issue has to be one of security. There are many issues when it comes to security over wireless networks. Wireless networks do not follow the rules of traditional wired networks. Many times, the signals are carried far beyond the physical parameters they are meant to be controlled within making it easier to intercept signals and capture information.
    There will also be the question posed of what happens to the have nots? - Those people and developing countries in particular that don't have the resources to wirelessly interact with others. The same thing could be said about the Internet itself but satellites could alleviate that problem far more quickly than the ability to put broadband connections in every office and home throughout the world.
    Another major hurdle has to be that business and society can only adapt at a certain pace. Technology evolves far more quickly and there may be many a product developed for which the demand is not yet there. But the mobile phone and PC market driven by what the consumer wants will determine what the future of wireless holds.
    But there is no question that wireless communication is here to stay and will grow even more.
    Signs of the new wireless technologies abound. Consumers are setting up wireless local area networks (WLANS) in their homes. These allow multiple computers to hook up to one fast internet connection or laptop users to connect from the comfort of their sofa or back garden patio. Away from home, 'Hotspots' that permit wireless connection to the internet are popping up everywhere, in book stores, coffee shops, airports and even pubs. Within the next year, airlines are expected to announce the availability of wi-fi during flights. However, until there is increased competition in the market place, this new epoch will be there for the privileged few as opposed to the mass market who will still be relying solely on their mobile phones for wireless connectivity on the move. It remains to be seen whether the new generation of 3G phones has arrived too late to push aside wi-fi and it's even conceivable that mobile phone companies could one day find themselves obsolete unless they look for new ways to attract and retain customers.
    But issues like security, along with the problems of cost, intrusion on privacy and identifying such things as hotspot locations is not going to hold wireless communication and technology back. In the end, there will always be solutions to problems and wi-fi is no different in this respect.
    David Reed, an adjunct professor at MIT's Media Lab in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been studying the future of wireless communications. He draws a comparison with the new wi-fi revolution with that of the 'paperless society' which was often mooted in offices and homes all over the world with the advent of the PC. He said, The market will push us towards a wireless future. People love paper but I can't find a single person who can say that about wires.4
    As more wi-fi systems are developed which will, in turn, drive the cost down it will become an increasingly less disruptive way to communicate in the future and it will become very difficult for anything else out there to compete with that.
    2
    It is used by millions of people every minute. For many people the Internet is a "room" that is situated somewhere behind their computer screens in a cyberspace. Though the Internet exists for about a decade it has become the medium of the new network society. The popular and commercial spreading of the Internet has been exceedingly significant - promoting changes in almost every sphere of human activity and society.
    From the very beginning of the Internet in 1991, it has completely changed the way firms do business, as well as the way customers buy and use products and services. The Internet gives extra opportunities for marketing. The spreading of the Internet has been so impetuous that it has been the point for well-grounded analysis. The Internet, virtual reality, can or cannot have negative effects on our culture and society? This paper is concentrated on the Internet phenomenon and on the spreading of the Internet culture and its effects on people.
    The first ideas appeared in the 1950s. In the 1980s, technologies that became the basis of the modern Internet began to spread worldwide. In the 1990s the World Wide Web was used all over the world. The infrastructure of the Internet spread all over the world and the modern world wide network of computers have appeared. It spread amidst the western countries, then came into the developing countries and created a worldwide admittance to communications and data and a digital divide in admittance to this new infrastructure.
    While studying the amount of Internet users, the Internet had 30 million users on 10 million computers linked to over 240,000 networks in about 100 states. The last figures indicate the fact that International Data Corp values that 40 million people are home web users in the USA in 1999, which consists of 15% of the population. “Le Monde” in 1998 published that 100 million people use the Internet all over the world. Jupiter Communications estimates that active Internet users - 4 to 5 million USA customers - shop regularly on the Internet by 2000, which represents 3% of grown-ups.
    The Internet is a very attractive marketing tool with the possibility to customize pages, as well as new promotional systems, giving firms the possibility of communication and promotion effectively by adapting to consumers’ likings. Interactive traits of the Internet permit asking customers their likings, and then the firm can adapt product offers and promotions to these likings. It provides the effective recruit of new customers. For instance, some car manufacturers ask Internet users for concrete information and in return give potential customers a $1,000 discount coupon or a free CD player coupon.
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