学 院 电子信息学院
专 业 网络工程
班 级 BX0907
学 号 12
姓 名 XXX
定稿日期： 2013 年 01 月 18 日
智能手机（smartphone）与一般手机相比，它具有一般手机的通讯功能，还带有相应的操作系统（OS），可以通过下载安装应用软件来拓展手机的其他功能，如安装浏览器来浏览网页，收发邮件，查看股票、交通情况、天气情况，看电影，通过相应的软件来听音乐，玩游戏等，这类具有独立操作系统的手机被称之为智能手机。智能手机具有以下几个特点：1、具有接入无线互联网的能力, 2、具有PDA(Personal Digital Assistant),包括PIM(个人信息管理) 日程记事，任务安排，多媒体应用，浏览网页；3、具有开放性的操作系统，可以根据需求来安装需要的应用程序，使手机的功能等到极、大地拓展；4、具有强大的功能，极强的拓展能力，大量的第三方软件支持。
1）应用程序的漏洞 2）病毒 3）恶意或间谍软件 4）网络监听
A.WEP(Wired Equivalent Privacy)
B. WPA(WI-FI Protected Access)
C. WAPI(WLAN Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure)
2012/11/15-2013/01/ ： 确定选题、资料准备、翻译有关外文资料及阅读技术文献、撰写开题报告。
2013/01/ -2013/02/30： 调研分析、具体研究及新技术应用
 贾铁军主编. 网络安全实用技术清华大学出版社.2011
 贾铁军主编. 网络安全管理及实用技术. 机械工业出版社.2010
 杨哲、 Zerone无线安全团队．无线网络黑客攻防．中国铁道出版社．2011
 诸葛建伟.网络攻防技术与实践. 清华大学出版社，2011
 米歇尔(Mitchell T.M.). 大数据技术丛书：机器学习. 机械工业出版社，2008
麦克卢尔(Stuart McClure) , 斯卡姆布智(Joel Scambray), 库尔茨(George Kurtz).黑客大曝光:网络安全机密与解决方案(第6版).清华大学出版社,2010
石志国 , 薛为民, 尹浩. 计算机网络安全教程(第2版).清华大学出版社，2011
组员： 、 、 、
年 月 日
年 月 日
无线局域网WLAN(wireless local area
3.1.1 IEEE 802.11b
3.1.2 IEEE 802.11a
3.1.3 IEE 802.11g
算机的操作系统至少为Windows XP SP2,
问：论文题目The Main Coverage of Chinas Ocean Marine Insuerance？
The Main Coverage of Chinas Ocean Marine Insuerance试论我国海运货物保险的基本险别和承保范围 ,我不知道从哪几方面写好,最好能再推荐一些资料.资料不好找
1.Risks & Coverage险别
(1)free from particular average (F.P.A.)平安险
(2)with particular average (W.A.)水渍险（基本险）
(3)all risk 一切险（综合险）
(4)total loss only (T.L.O.) 全损险
(5)war risk 战争险
(7)additional risk 附加险
(8)from warehouse to warehouse clauses仓至仓条款
(9)theft,pilferage and nondelivery (T.P.N.D.)盗窃提货不着险
(10)rain fresh water damage 淡水雨淋险
(11)risk of shortage 短量险
(12)risk of contamination 沾污险
(13)risk of leakage 渗漏险
(14)risk of clashing & breakage碰损破碎险
(15)risk of odour 串味险
(16)damage caused by sweating and/or heating 受潮受热险
(17)hook damage 钩损险
(18)loss and/or damage caused by breakage of packing包装破裂险
(19)risk of rusting 锈损险
(20)risk of mould 发霉险
(21)strike, riots and civel commotion (S.R.C.C.) 罢工、暴动、民变险
(22)risk of spontaneous combustion 自燃险
(23)deterioration risk 腐烂变质险
(24)inherent vice risk 内在缺陷险
(25)risk of natural loss or normal loss途耗或自然损耗险
(26)special additional risk 特别附加险
(27)failure to delivery 交货不到险
(28)import duty 进口关税险
(29)on deck 仓面险
(32)fire risk extension clause-for storage of cargo at destination Hongkong, including Kowloon, or Macao 出口货物到香港（包括九龙在内）或澳门存仓火险责任扩展条款
(33)survey in customs risk 海关检验险
(34)survey at jetty risk 码头检验险
Ocean Marine Insurance
Insurance is a contract whereby one party, inconsideration of a premium paid, undertakes to indemnify the other party against loss from certain perils or risks to which the subject matter insured may be exposed to. It is an extensive subject and ocean marine insurance is only a small part of private insurance.
Ocean marine insurance covers ships and their cargoes, both on the high seas and on inland waterways.
1. NEED FOR INSURANCE
Exporters and importers face all the time uncertainties of loss of their goods. Insurance is used to protect their financial interests against such risks and actual losses．Trade and insurance can and do exist independently, but in proper context, insurance is an indispensable adjunct. Without adequate insurance and protection of the interests of those with goods in transit, international trade would be negatively affected.
2. COVERAGE OF OCEAN MARINE INSURANCE
By purchasing insurance, the assured protects his financial interests against three things: the risk of loss, the actual loss and the expenses incurred to avoid or reduce loss.
Two types of risks are covered by ocean marine insurance. The first type is the perils of the sea that include both natural calamities and fortuitous accidents. Natural calamities refer to earthquake, heavy weather such as hurricane and thunderstorm, etc. These events should be exceptional to some extent and the ordinary action of the wind and waves are not considered natural calamities. Fortuitous accidents include fire, smoking, stranding, sinking, collision, etc. However, fire caused by inherent vice or nature of the cargo is excluded.
All the perils must occur at sea and must be because of sea, otherwise the insurance will not cover them．A vessel intentionally sunk by its owner, for example, is not an accident because of sea and therefore will not be covered by ocean marine insurance. Similarly, natural deterioration and wear and tear are not perils of sea either.
The second type of risks covered is extraneous risks. These risks include ordinary risks such as theft, pilferage, rain damage, shortage, breakage, etc and special risks such as strike, war, failure to deliver, etc.
Ocean marine insurance covers two types of losses, partial loss and total loss.
Partial loss means the total loss of part of the insured cargo (eg, the loss of one case out of a shipment of ten) or the damage to all or part of the insured cargo.
Total loss can be classified into actual total loss or constructive total loss. Actual total loss means the non-existence of the insured cargo in value. Constructive total loss, however, means the subject matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable or because it would not be preserved from actual total loss without tan expenditure greater than its recovered value. In other words, it is unlikely to recover the subject matter or the cost of recovery will exceed the value of the subject matter.
Ocean marine insurance also covers some expenses incurred in reducing the loss of the subject matter insured either by the assured himself or a party other than the insurer and/or the assured. This encourages efforts to save the subject matter insured.
3. MAIN CATEGORIES OF GENERAL CARGO INSURANCE
1) Free from Particular Average（FPA) of China Insurance Clauses (CIC, effective January 1, 1981)
Before going to FPA, average terms need to be explained. The word average has a special meaning in cargo insurance. It means partial loss or non-total loss to a ship or cargo, and partial loss in turn means 1) total loss of part of the insured cargo or 2) damage to all or part of the insured cargo.
Particular average means a loss that is borne solely by the owner of the lost property (ship or cargo) and general average means a sacrifice made for the common safety of both the cargo and the ship. Partial damage of cargo by sea water is, for instance, a particular average, while partial damage of cargo by water that has been used to put out a fire is a general average since the damage has been made in order to save both the ship and the cargo on board the ship of all the cargo owners. (Of course, the damage caused by the fire is still a particular average).
Particular average is recoverable from the insurance underwriter, if it has been covered; but general average is spread among the interests affected and all including owners whose property does not sustain a loss must make proportionate contributions, which are then recovered from the insurance underwriter.
A general average must be a partial, deliberate and reasonable sacrifice of the ship, freight, or goods, undertaken for the common safety of the adventure, in time of peril and/or extraordinary expenditure with the like object such as the charges for towing a stranded ship.
Free from Particular Average then means no partial loss or damage is recoverable. It provides coverage only for total loss of cargo together with ship or aircraft and general average.
FPA is the minimum coverage and offers limited protection. However, there are two exceptions in which partial loss or damage is recoverable. First, if the lost object is a separate package in a shipment such as one case out of a ten-case shipment, partial loss or damage is recoverable. And if the vessel or craft is stranded, Sunk or burnt, partial loss or damage is also recoverable. Therefore FPA actually covers part of partial loss.
China Insurance Clauses are very similar to Institute Cargo Clauses (ICC, effective January 1, 1982) made by the Institute of London Underwriters and widely used around the world. ICC (C), for example, has the same coverage as CIC FPA except for damage of package during loading and/or unloading.
2) With Average/With Particular Average (WA/WPA) of CIC
WA provides cover against all loss or damage due to marine perils or perils of the sea including partial loss or damage throughout the duration of the policy. This coverage provides protection against damage from sea water caused by "heavy weather".
ICC (B) has the same coverage plus damage of package during loading and/or unloading.
ICC (B) and (C) provide cover against specified risks only.
3) All Risks (AR) of CIC
Besides the risks covered by FPA and WA, All Risks also provides cover against some extraneous risks of loss or damage (eg, theft, pilferage and non-delivery, fresh water rain damage, risk of shortage, risk of intermixture and contamination, leakage risk, clashing and breakage risk, hook damage, loss and/or damage by breakage of packing, rusting risk). However, risks of war, strike and loss or damage or expense proximately caused by delay or inherent vice or nature of the subject matter insured are not covered.
ICC (A) provides cover against all risks that are not specifically excluded and is similar to AR of CIC.
4) Special additional coverage
Besides the above categories of coverage, both CIC and ICC have some additional coverage’s. For example, CIC has coverage against failure to deliver risk, import duty risk, on deck risk, war risks, and strikes and so on. These additional coverage’s must be taken out together with FPA, WA or AR. ICC also provides coverage against war risks, strike and other risks, but war risks and strikes can be taken out independently.
5) Exclusions of insurance policy
Insurance policies have excluded the coverage against some risks. These exclusions are the loss or damage by risks such as inherent vice or deterioration, insufficient or unsuitable packing, delay and loss of market, etc.
4. CARGO INSURANCE CLAIMS
Cargo insurance claim includes a few steps as listed below.
The assured should not give clean receipts when goods are in dubious condition.
The assured should give immediate notice to the nearest branch or agency in the event of damage giving rise to a claim. This notice means that a claim has been filed. A delay in giving the notice, on the other hand, might result in the underwriter's refusal to process the claim.
Insurance company will appoint a suitable surveyor to inspect the goods and report on the nature and extent of the damage, usually a report or certificate of loss is issued to the assured who pays a fee for it.
The assured should send claim paper to the insurance company with the certificate. The inspection fee is refunded if the loss is recoverable.
It is of vital importance that the assured must be able to prove a loss by a peril against which he was insured.
2) Documents required
The following documents are usually required in processing a claim for compensation.
Original insurance certificate or policy
Original B/L, AW (3 or other contract of carriage)
Survey report or other documentary evidence detailing the loss or damage
Any exchange of correspondence with carriers and other parties regarding their liability for the loss or damage
Any landing account or weight notes at final destination
Wireless technology was little more than just a distant idea for the majority of ordinary consumers ten years ago. However, it has exploded over recent years with the use of 3G phones and wireless home computing increasingly commonplace.
It would be foolish to suggest that wireless communication has reached its peak. Whilst mobile phones and home computing will continue to be the major focus in the quest for ever increasing sophistication within the technology, new applications are emerging daily.
One company, Securecom Technologies, based in Ireland, have been at the forefront of harnessing wireless technologies in the area of personal safety. They already have a number of products in the marketplace designed to enable users to activate an alarm signal to a remote emergency centre wirelessly. Their Benefon range of applications are used by vulnerable elderly people, lone workers and VIPs to increase their sense of security and ability to effortlessly get in touch with help at the touch of the button.
They are now in the process of developing PERUSE1, which stands for 'Personal Safety System Utilising Satellite combined with Emerging Technologies'. The Peruse project will develop a Wireless Personal Alarm (WPA) solution which will be carried by or worn on a person and will allow the user to summon help at the touch of a button. When the alarm has been activated, the WPA will transmit a low power signal to a satellite communications headset which will forward a message to an authorised number. This will include the identity of the person in distress, as well as their current location. However, the ingenuity of the technology goes further as it will also have the potential to transmit the user's current state of health and local environmental parameters.
It is envisaged that the recipient of the users SOS signal will be a fully equipped Emergency Monitoring Centre to whom the user will have previously given full instructions as to the steps they would wish to have the Centre take on their behalf in the event of an emergency.
There are two core components that are in the development phase. The wireless personal alarm (WPA) and a 'dongle' which provides the handset for satellite communication use which will have a low power wireless link to the WPA.
The important issues here are that the two components will need to take into account size, cost, accuracy of location and battery autonomy. The main benefits will be that the device will be able to be worn or carried on a person discreetly. This makes it ideal for professions such as personal security, where the ability to communicate a message quickly and without fuss can often be of paramount importance. It will herald a new era in satellite communication. No longer will the user have to tap a keypad to enter a number nor will they have to move the handset for optimal signal strength prior to sending an emergence message. This technology will be invaluable to professions such as mountain rescue and will also be a tremendous benefit to those who enjoy hiking and climbing in the course of their leisure pursuits where conventional mobile phone technology can often be rendered useless.
There are currently no known competitors for this potentially life saving technology for which Securecom has filed for both Irish and European Patent Applications. Prototypes have already been manufactured and pilot programmes and laboratory tests are well under way.
UWB (Ultra Wide Band)2 is another example of emerging wireless technology. Alongside traditional wireless uses, UWB can also detect images through solid objects, such as people on the opposite side of a wall. This has led to an equal number of supporters and opponents.
Although UWB can be used for consumer applications in a similar fashion to Bluetooth technology such as cable elimination between a PC and its peripheral equipment, the more interesting applications focus on its 'radar 'like imagery. These applications could be used to find people trapped in a burning building, locating hostages and captors behind a thick wall and finding objects such as those that might be buried in the ground. Heightened security at airports and other public buildings can use UWB technology to detect weapons on people and bombs in luggage and packages. In this age of heightened security, post 9/11, the benefits of this emerging technology should not be understated.
A few companies have started to develop UWB products, including XtremeSpectrum, Time Domain and Aether Wire. XtremeSpectrum is developing products to enable the sending and receiving of multiple streams of digital audio and video for both battery powered and other consumer devices such as digital cameras, DVDs, DVRs, camcorders, MP3 players and set top boxes. Time Domain has developed a UWB chip set targeting three core technologies: wireless communication, precision location and tracking, and high definition portable radar whilst Aether Wire is working on miniature, distributed-position location and low data-rate communication devices. One of its goals is to develop coin sized devices that are capable of localisation to centimetre accuracy over kilometre distances.
However, privacy violation is one of the major concerns of the technology's opponents. Any technology that can 'see' through solid objects can be used for illegal purposes as well as legitimate ones. In theory, a UWB-enabled system could 'look through' the walls of a house to locate valuable objects and could detect when the occupants are not at home. Supporters, however, could rightly point out that this is a dilemma shared by many technologies that are used to enhance public safety - the juggling act between increased security versus decreased personal freedom. It could be argued that baggage searches at airports via x-ray and metal detection are common examples of us giving up privacy for better security, a price most people are willing to pay.
No other area is more at the forefront of the emergence of innovation in wireless technology than space exploration. Future missions to nearby planets like Mars will require space communication technologies that can provide an interplanetary satellite and navigation infrastructure via space systems that are far more compact and efficient than seen ever before. A longer term commitment will be necessary to resolve the challenges of efficient planetary communication due to the increase in distances involved as space exploration ventures further out into the solar system. To support planetary exploration, techniques developed for Earth-bound usage will be transferred to other planets as well. Exploration of Mars, for example, will require a high accuracy positioning capability such as a 'Martian GPS' as an aid to exploratory roving vehicles.
This very day, the 'Mars Spirit' space rover continues to send data back to Earth, almost 18 months after it touched down on the red planet, surviving more than 4 times its expected mission length. One day it is highly likely that we may see astronauts walking on Mars carting around wi-fi enabled PCs. In a remote Arizona meteor crater, NASA has already begun testing a mobile wi-fi system that could enable those on a Mars mission to easily deploy wireless data connectivity at a transmission rate of just more than a megabit per second over a 2 square mile area, and then change that coverage area at will through the use of mobile access points, making it entirely feasible to explore different terrain on any given day.
Tropos Networks3 developed the technology which NASA has adopted whereby the astronauts could have inter-connectivity via a three node mesh network. They would first establish a base communications station near their spacecraft and then set up an Ethernet connection between that base and a main access point. Then each node in the network would pick up its wireless connectivity from the access point.
Testing is still in its infancy and there is some way to go before astronauts would be strutting their stuff on Mars and communicating wirelessly with one and other and with mission control in this way.
However, the Mars Spirit space rover is still sending back images and data from the red planet today, relying heavily on wireless technology to do so. It may appear that these vehicles have been designed solely for the purpose of space exploration but closer scrutiny reveals applications that could also be modified and used on Earth. Unlike, say, a car manufacturing robot which knows where and when the engine or body appears on the assembly line, the Mars rovers are working in an unstructured and unknown environment. As a result, the rovers have had to learn about their new home through their own sensors, including a set of nine cameras on each rover. The rovers have two navigation cameras for a 3D view of their surroundings, two hazard avoidance cameras for a 3D view of nearby terrain and panoramic cameras to capture the images of the planet's surface. However, the rovers cannot just look around them, process the images and know where to go. Neither can the mission controllers on Earth grab a joystick and start steering the rovers whilst watching images being beamed back from thousands of miles away. A key reason is processing power. The central processor in each rover has a top speed of 20 MHz. Instead, during the Martian night, while a rover is 'asleep', a team on Earth with much more powerful computers programs its activities for the day ahead, and then sends basic instructions on where to go and how to get there. Along with taking pictures, each rover is examining the planet with several instruments on a robotic arm. The arms have 'shoulder', 'elbow' and 'wrist' joints for manoeuvrability and are equipped with four sensors: a microscopic camera for close up pictures of rocks, an alpha particle x ray spectrometer for determining the mineral content of rocks, another spectrometer for detecting iron and a rock abrasion tool for cutting through the layer of oxidation that forms on the surfaces of Martian rocks. As with the movement of the rovers, the arms are controlled mostly via prepared commands from mission control.
Some observers have noted that some of these applications may prove useful here on Earth. For example, a robotic arm that doesn't require real time human control might be good for disabled people who use wheelchairs and can't control a joystick with their hands. Using its own sensors, it could reach out and get things for the person in the wheelchair, for example.
In addition, a robot that can deal with new and unknown environments might save manufacturers money. In current factories with 'robotic' workers, when the company shifts to making a new product, the whole factory floor has to be reconfigured and the robots reprogrammed to deal with the new arrangement. A robot that could use feedback from sensors to figure out where things are could adapt to changes by itself, saving the company the time and effort of building a new structured environment and reprogramming the robots.
With all the emerging technologies around and, inevitably, with more to come, the inevitable hurdle will be one of convergence and integration as the IT industry seeks to develop the tools that will be most sought after. Inevitably, there will be winners and losers.
However, there is no doubt that the wireless phenomenon is reshaping enterprise connectivity worldwide and is definitely here to stay. Business needs information mobility for better customer interaction. Employees will be even more equipped to perform their job functions from their workplace of choice and, though this sounds like utopia, a societal change from office based to 'wherever they feel like being' based might conjure up an horrific vision of the future for company leaders who have enjoyed the traditions of having all their employees working from under the same roof.
Another major issue has to be one of security. There are many issues when it comes to security over wireless networks. Wireless networks do not follow the rules of traditional wired networks. Many times, the signals are carried far beyond the physical parameters they are meant to be controlled within making it easier to intercept signals and capture information.
There will also be the question posed of what happens to the have nots? - Those people and developing countries in particular that don't have the resources to wirelessly interact with others. The same thing could be said about the Internet itself but satellites could alleviate that problem far more quickly than the ability to put broadband connections in every office and home throughout the world.
Another major hurdle has to be that business and society can only adapt at a certain pace. Technology evolves far more quickly and there may be many a product developed for which the demand is not yet there. But the mobile phone and PC market driven by what the consumer wants will determine what the future of wireless holds.
But there is no question that wireless communication is here to stay and will grow even more.
Signs of the new wireless technologies abound. Consumers are setting up wireless local area networks (WLANS) in their homes. These allow multiple computers to hook up to one fast internet connection or laptop users to connect from the comfort of their sofa or back garden patio. Away from home, 'Hotspots' that permit wireless connection to the internet are popping up everywhere, in book stores, coffee shops, airports and even pubs. Within the next year, airlines are expected to announce the availability of wi-fi during flights. However, until there is increased competition in the market place, this new epoch will be there for the privileged few as opposed to the mass market who will still be relying solely on their mobile phones for wireless connectivity on the move. It remains to be seen whether the new generation of 3G phones has arrived too late to push aside wi-fi and it's even conceivable that mobile phone companies could one day find themselves obsolete unless they look for new ways to attract and retain customers.
But issues like security, along with the problems of cost, intrusion on privacy and identifying such things as hotspot locations is not going to hold wireless communication and technology back. In the end, there will always be solutions to problems and wi-fi is no different in this respect.
David Reed, an adjunct professor at MIT's Media Lab in Cambridge, Massachusetts has been studying the future of wireless communications. He draws a comparison with the new wi-fi revolution with that of the 'paperless society' which was often mooted in offices and homes all over the world with the advent of the PC. He said, The market will push us towards a wireless future. People love paper but I can't find a single person who can say that about wires.4
As more wi-fi systems are developed which will, in turn, drive the cost down it will become an increasingly less disruptive way to communicate in the future and it will become very difficult for anything else out there to compete with that.
It is used by millions of people every minute. For many people the Internet is a "room" that is situated somewhere behind their computer screens in a cyberspace. Though the Internet exists for about a decade it has become the medium of the new network society. The popular and commercial spreading of the Internet has been exceedingly significant - promoting changes in almost every sphere of human activity and society.
From the very beginning of the Internet in 1991, it has completely changed the way firms do business, as well as the way customers buy and use products and services. The Internet gives extra opportunities for marketing. The spreading of the Internet has been so impetuous that it has been the point for well-grounded analysis. The Internet, virtual reality, can or cannot have negative effects on our culture and society? This paper is concentrated on the Internet phenomenon and on the spreading of the Internet culture and its effects on people.
The first ideas appeared in the 1950s. In the 1980s, technologies that became the basis of the modern Internet began to spread worldwide. In the 1990s the World Wide Web was used all over the world. The infrastructure of the Internet spread all over the world and the modern world wide network of computers have appeared. It spread amidst the western countries, then came into the developing countries and created a worldwide admittance to communications and data and a digital divide in admittance to this new infrastructure.
While studying the amount of Internet users, the Internet had 30 million users on 10 million computers linked to over 240,000 networks in about 100 states. The last figures indicate the fact that International Data Corp values that 40 million people are home web users in the USA in 1999, which consists of 15% of the population. “Le Monde” in 1998 published that 100 million people use the Internet all over the world. Jupiter Communications estimates that active Internet users - 4 to 5 million USA customers - shop regularly on the Internet by 2000, which represents 3% of grown-ups.
The Internet is a very attractive marketing tool with the possibility to customize pages, as well as new promotional systems, giving firms the possibility of communication and promotion effectively by adapting to consumers’ likings. Interactive traits of the Internet permit asking customers their likings, and then the firm can adapt product offers and promotions to these likings. It provides the effective recruit of new customers. For instance, some car manufacturers ask Internet users for concrete information and in return give potential customers a $1,000 discount coupon or a free CD player coupon.